The majority of the country is covered in rainforest, which hosts a huge diversity of plant and animal species. There are approximately 210 mammal species, 620 bird species, 250 reptile species, and 150 frog species found in Malaysia. There are few flora and fauna that can only be found in Malaysia.
The Rafflesia is the largest flower in the World with recent flowers found measuring up to 95cm (3 feet) across. There are 55 species of Rafflesia, of which 9 are found in Borneo. The Rafflesia is a totally parasitic flower. The only visible part of the plant is a single flower that has no leaves, stems or roots.
The Bornean Orang Utan, belongs to the only genus of great apes native to Asia. Like the other great apes, orangutans are highly intelligent, displaying advanced tool use and distinct cultural patterns in the wild. Orangutans share approximately 97% of their DNA with humans.
The Bornean orangutan lives in tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Bornean lowlands, as well as mountainous areas up to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) above sea level. This species lives throughout the canopy of primary and secondary forests, and moves large distances to find trees bearing fruit.
The Bornean orangutan is an endangered species, with deforestation, palm oil plantations and hunting posing a serious threat to its continued existence.
The hornbill is a common resident breeder in tropical and subtropical Asia from India east to Borneo. Its habitat is evergreen and moist deciduous forests, often near human settlements. It has mainly black plumage, apart from its white belly, throat patch, tail sides and trailing edge to the wings. The bill is yellow with a large, mainly black casque. Females have white orbital skin, which the males lack. Juveniles have no casque.
During incubation, the female lays two or three white eggs in a tree hole, which is blocked off with a cement made of mud, droppings and fruit pulp. There is only one narrow aperture, just big enough for the male to transfer food to the mother and chicks. When the chicks have grown too large for the mother to fit in the nest with them, she breaks out and rebuilds the wall, after which both parents feed the chicks.
Mangroves are various large and extensive types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics—mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S.
Mangroves are salt tolerant trees (halophytes) adapted to live in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen (anoxic) conditions of waterlogged mud.
Mangrove systems support a range of wildlife species including crocodiles, birds, tigers, deer, monkeys and honey bees. Many animals find shelter either in the roots or branches of mangroves.
The proboscis monkey or long-nosed monkey, is a reddish-brown arboreal Old World monkey that is endemic to the south-east Asian island of Borneo. This species of monkey is easily identifiable because of its unusually large nose.
The proboscis monkey is endemic to the island of Borneo and can be found on all three nations that divide the island: Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is most common in coastal areas and along rivers. It favors dipterocarp, mangrove and riverine forests.
The Malayan tapir, also called the Asian tapir, is the largest of the five species of tapir and the only one native to Asia.
The animal is easily identified by its markings, most notably the light-colored patch that extends from its shoulders to its rear end. The rest of its hair is black, except for the tips of its ears, which, as with other tapirs, are rimmed with white. This pattern is for camouflage; the disrupted coloration makes it more difficult to recognize it as a tapir, and other animals may mistake it for a large rock rather than prey when it is lying down to sleep.
Pitcher plants are several different carnivorous plants that have evolved modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with liquid.
Foraging, flying or crawling insects such as flies are attracted to the cavity formed by the cupped leaf, often by visual lures such as anthocyanin pigments, and nectar bribes. The rim of the pitcher (peristome) is slippery, when moistened by condensation or nectar, causing insects to fall into the trap. The small bodies of liquid contained within the pitcher traps are called phytotelmata. They drown the insect, and the body of it is gradually dissolved. This may occur by bacterial action (the bacteria being washed into the pitcher by rainfall) or by enzymes secreted by the plant itself.
Rajah Brooke's Birdwing
Rajah Brooke's Birdwing is a distinctive black and electric-green birdwing butterfly from the rainforests. It is a protected species. It is the national butterfly of Malaysia.
The wings of males are mainly black. Each forewing has seven teeth-shaped electric-green markings, while there is a relatively large electric-green patch on the hindwings. The head is bright red and the body is black with red markings. The wings of females are browner with prominent white flashes at the tips of the forewings and at the base of the hindwings. The wingspan of Rajah Brooke's Birdwing is 15–17 cm (5.9–6.7 in).
Malaysia is home to all five sea turtle species - Green Turtle, Hawksbill Turtle, Olive Ridley Turtle, Leatherback Turtle and Loggerhead Turtle. All of these species are critically endangered worldwide and therefore the state government has set up a network of coastal and marine national parks dedicated to their conservation.
The habitat of a sea turtle has a significant influence on its morphology. Sea turtles are able to grow so large because of the immense size of their habitat: the ocean. The reason that sea turtles are much bigger than land tortoises and freshwater turtles is directly correlated with the vastness of the ocean, and the fact that they travel such far distances. Having more room to live enables more room for growth.
Malaysia had taken a few action to preserve the wildlife. The map below shows the location of 19 national park.